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Vaginismus: Gejala, Penyebab, dan Pengobatan

Vaginismus: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

Have you ever experienced extreme pain or tension during sexual intercourse or inserting a tampon? If so, you may need to be on the lookout for vaginismus.

Vaginismus is a medical condition where the vaginal muscles involuntarily or involuntarily tighten. This occurs as the body's response to fear, often related to sexual penetration or inserting a tampon.

This fear can be triggered by a variety of factors, such as past traumatic experiences, concerns about pain, or even a lack of knowledge about sexual anatomy.

Want to know more about the causes, symptoms, and treatment of vaginismus? See the explanation below.

Symptoms of Vaginismus

Vaginismus is characterized by involuntary tightening of the vaginal muscles. The symptoms that appear vary depending on their severity. Some of these include pain during penetration, difficulty inserting a tampon, difficulty breathing, and muscle spasms due to fear of penetration.

Vaginismus sufferers cannot control or stop contractions of their vaginal muscles. Other symptoms you may experience include:

  • Pain during sexual intercourse (dyspareunia) accompanied by feelings of tightness, pain, and a burning or stinging sensation.
  • Difficulty or impossibility of penetration.
  • Long-term sexual pain with no apparent cause.
  • Pain when inserting a tampon.
  • Muscle spasms or difficulty breathing when initiating sexual intercourse.

Although vaginismus does not prevent a person from being sexually aroused, this condition can cause anxiety during intercourse. As a result, women who experience it often try to avoid sex or vaginal penetration.

Causes of Vaginismus

The exact cause of vaginismus cannot be determined. However, experts believe that this condition can be triggered by various factors, including:

  • Fear of pregnancy.
  • Anxiety when about to have sexual intercourse.
  • Traumatic experiences resulting from rape or sexual abuse.
  • Infections of the reproductive organs, such as fungal infections or urinary tract infections.
  • History of operations on internal organs.
  • Have had radiotherapy in the pelvic area.
  • Menopause causes the vagina to become dry and less elastic.

Treatments of Vaginismus

Once the diagnosis is confirmed, vaginismus treatment may involve several specialists, depending on the underlying cause. Causes such as infections need to be addressed first before focusing on vaginismus. The main goal of treatment is to reduce muscle tension and fear of pain.

Treatment also aims to overcome various fears related to this disorder. Some commonly used methods include:

  • Pelvic Floor Control Exercises. Involves muscle contraction and relaxation, like Kegel exercises, to improve pelvic floor muscle control.
  • Education and Counseling. Doctors provide information about sexual anatomy and the sexual response cycle to help patients understand pain and the processes the body experiences.
  • Emotional Training. Helps patients identify, express, and overcome emotional factors that may contribute to vaginal muscle problems.
  • Reduced Sensitivity to Penetration. Women are advised to touch the area around the vagina every day. If there is no pain, they can try to touch deeper, until finally touching and opening the vaginal lips and inserting a finger.
  • Penetration Training. Once you can touch your vagina without pain, your doctor recommends using a plastic dilator. If it can be inserted without pain, the dilator is left in place for 10 to 15 minutes to allow the muscle to get used to the pressure.

Vaginismus cannot be prevented because the exact cause is unknown. However, good communication with your partner and foreplay before sexual intercourse can help prevent vaginismus. If you experience symptoms of vaginismus or often feel uncomfortable during sexual intercourse, immediately consult a doctor for further treatment.


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