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Amenorrhea: Absence of Menstruation

Amenorrhea: Absence of Menstruation

Have you ever experienced a condition where you did not menstruate for months? Be careful, it could be a symptom of amenorrhea.

Then what is amenorrhea and is this condition dangerous to health?

What is Amenorrhea?

Amenorrhea is a condition in which women do not menstruate for 3 or more cycles. This term is also used for women who are 15 years old but have never had a period.

This condition of amenorrhea can occur in adolescent girls to adults. Generally, women who have not entered the phase of puberty, are pregnant, breastfeeding, until approaching menopause, will not experience menstruation. In addition, women who use hormonal contraceptives, such as injectable contraception or other methods, also do not experience the same condition.

Amenorrhea itself can be caused by natural things such as pregnancy or be a sign of health problems. Generally the cause of amenorrhea is caused by hormone levels to health problems. If you experience this condition, it is better if you immediately do a health check because amenorrhea is a condition that must be treated immediately so as not to cause a more serious disease.

Read: 6 Normal Symptoms in Menstruation

Types of Amenorrhea

There are 2 types of amenorrhea that you need to know, namely primary amenorrhea and secondary amenorrhea. This type of course can be caused by different conditions.

1. Primary Amenorrhea

    Primary amenorrhea is a condition that refers to when adolescent girls are 15 or 16 years old, but do not have menstruation. There are several things that affect adolescents experiencing this primary amenorrhea, as follows:

    • Disorders of the Pituitary Gland
      The pituitary gland is a small gland located in the brain. This gland plays a role in the production of important hormones in the body, such as cortisol, prolactin, and growth hormone

      If the pituitary gland is disturbed in the brain, it can cause an imbalance in reproductive hormones. This then causes disruption of the menstrual cycle.
    • Genetic Disorders
      Hereditary factors can also influence primary amenorrhea. This is because genetic disorders can affect the function of the ovaries, causing menstruation to be obstructed.
    • Imperforate Hymen
      Imperforate hymen is a disorder in which the hymen does not show an opening, thus covering the vagina completely.

    2. Secondary Amenorrhea

    Compared to primary amenorrhea, secondary amenorrhea is the most common condition in women. Secondary amenorrhea is a condition in which women who normally have smooth menstrual cycles suddenly stop for a long time.

    There are several causes of secondary amenorrhea:

    • Hormone Imbalance
      The most common cause of secondary amenorrhea is hormonal imbalance. Generally, this hormonal imbalance is caused by a pituitary tumor, low estrogen levels or increased testosterone levels.

      In addition, hormonal balance can also occur due to an overactive thyroid gland or what is commonly called hyperthyroidism.
    • Pregnancy
      Pregnancy is also one of the natural causes of secondary amenorrhea. In addition to pregnancy, women who are breastfeeding and experiencing menopause can also cause women not to experience menstruation for more than 3 months.
    • Consumption of Drugs
      Health conditions that require you to take drugs are also a cause of secondary amenorrhea. Medications such as antidepressants to antiepileptic drugs can make hormone levels rise, causing ovulation and menstrual cycles to be blocked.
    • Use of Contraceptives
      Use of contraceptives, such as birth control pills and injections. If you stop using birth control, it will take some time for your menstrual cycle to return to normal. In addition, chemotherapy and radiation treatment can also cause secondary amenorrhea.

    Symptoms of Amenorrhea

    Menstruation is a cycle that occurs in every woman. Generally, this cycle occurs in women aged 12 to 16 years. Menstruation usually occurs every 21-35 days and is characterized by bleeding from the vagina for 7 days.

    However, there are conditions where women experience amenorrhea. Amenorrhea is a condition that occurs in adolescent, adult, and pre-menopausal women where they do not menstruate for 3 months or more.

    In addition to not having regular periods, there are several other symptoms that occur in people with amenorrhea. Some of the symptoms of amenorrhea that you can pay attention to are as follows:

    • No menstruation for 3 months or more
    • Hair loss
    • Headache
    • Pelvic pain
    • Discharge from the nipple
    • Excessive hair growth
    • Impaired vision
    • The appearance of acne

    How to Treat Amenorrhea

    Treatment for amenorrhea can vary, depending on the cause. If the cause of amenorrhea is pregnancy or menopause, then of course you do not need any treatment.

    Here are some ways to treat amenorrhea according to the cause:

    • Obesity or Weight
      You need to have a healthy diet to make your body weight ideal. You can exercise regularly and maintain nutritional intake.
    • Use of Birth Control Pills
      You can stop taking birth control pills, or you can also take hormone therapy to restore your menstrual cycle.
    • Stress
      If the cause of amenorrhea is stress, then you can do self-relaxation to calm the mind.
    • Tumor or Structural Blockage
      Treating amenorrhea caused by a tumor or structural blockage may require surgery.
    • Extreme Weight Loss
      For amenorrhea conditions caused by extreme weight loss, you can return to normal weight, by eating nutritious foods, drinking nutritious drinks, and others.

    If you have amenorrhea, you can do some of the above treatments. But, it would be better if you consult a doctor to get a more appropriate treatment.

    Read more about menstruation:

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