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Mengapa Menstruasi Tidak Akan Terjadi Jika Ovum Dibuahi Oleh Sperma?

Why is Menstruation Absent When the Ovum is Fertilized by Sperm?

Menstruation is a natural process that occurs in women of reproductive age. It involves the shedding of the uterine lining, accompanied by vaginal bleeding, in the absence of fertilization. However, when an ovum is successfully fertilized by sperm, the woman's body undergoes a series of changes that prevent menstruation from taking place. In this article, we will explore the reasons why menstruation does not occur when fertilization occurs.

Fertilization and Hormonal Changes

When an ovum is fertilized by sperm, it forms a zygote, which is the earliest stage of pregnancy. This fertilization triggers a cascade of hormonal changes in the woman's body. The fertilized egg travels down the fallopian tube and implants itself into the thickened uterine lining, known as the endometrium. This process is facilitated by the hormone progesterone, which is produced by the corpus luteum, a temporary structure formed from the ovarian follicle after ovulation.

Progesterone's Role in Menstruation Prevention

Progesterone plays a crucial role in preparing the uterus for pregnancy and maintaining the uterine lining. It inhibits the shedding of the endometrium, which is the characteristic feature of menstruation. When fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum continues to produce progesterone, signaling to the body that a pregnancy is underway. The sustained presence of progesterone prevents the menstrual cycle from progressing, effectively halting menstruation.

Development of the Placenta

After implantation, the fertilized egg develops into an embryo, and the placenta starts to form. The placenta is a vital organ that provides nourishment and oxygen to the developing fetus and removes waste products. It produces hormones, including human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which is responsible for maintaining the corpus luteum and ensuring the continued production of progesterone.

Progesterone Sustains the Pregnancy

Throughout pregnancy, the placenta takes over the production of progesterone, ensuring the maintenance of the uterine lining. The high levels of progesterone prevent menstruation and support the growth and development of the fetus. As long as the pregnancy progresses successfully, menstruation does not occur.

Signs of Pregnancy

The absence of menstruation is often one of the first signs that a woman may be pregnant. Other early signs include breast tenderness, fatigue, nausea, and a missed period. These signs are indicative of the hormonal changes occurring in the body due to pregnancy.

When an ovum is fertilized by sperm, the woman's body undergoes a series of hormonal changes that prevent menstruation from occurring. Progesterone, produced by the corpus luteum and later by the placenta, plays a vital role in maintaining the uterine lining and sustaining the pregnancy. The absence of menstruation is a clear indication that fertilization has taken place and pregnancy is underway. It is important for women to recognize the significance of missing a period and consider taking a pregnancy test if they suspect they may be pregnant.


  • American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2020). Frequently Asked Questions: Pregnancy. Retrieved from
  • Office on Women's Health. (2020). Pregnancy. Retrieved from
  • NHS. (2019). How soon can I do a pregnancy test? Retrieved from

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