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Infertilitas Pria: Penyebab, Ciri-ciri, dan Perawatan Kesuburan

Male Infertility: Causes, Characteristics, and Fertility Treatment

Not only experienced by women, infertility can also occur in men. Fertility problems can be caused by various factors. To understand it better, here is information about male infertility that you need to know.

Causes of Male Infertility

There are several factors that can cause difficulties for married couples to get pregnant, with the incidence of infertility in men being around 30–50%. Several conditions that can trigger infertility in men involve various aspects, such as:

1. Thyroid Disorders

Hormonal problems, especially those related to thyroid disorders, can have a significant impact on male fertility. Thyroid hormones play a role in regulating the body's metabolism and reproductive organ function, including sperm production and quality. Thyroid hormone balance is the key to ensuring optimal sperm quality.

2. Hyperprolactinemia

This condition occurs when prolactin hormone levels exceed normal limits. High prolactin can affect sperm production, sexual desire, and even cause impotence, potentially inhibiting fertility.

3. Gland and Genital Tract Infections

Infections of the genital glands and tract, such as inflammation of the testicles, urinary tract infections, or sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea, syphilis, HIV, and inflammation of the prostate, can cause infertility in men.

4. Varicocele

Swelling of the testicles, known as varicocele, can interfere with sperm quality and quantity. This condition occurs because the blood vessels in the testicles become swollen.

5. Testicular Torsion

Testicular torsion occurs when the testicle twists, disrupting blood flow to the reproductive organs. Apart from causing severe pain, this condition can also cause swelling of the scrotum.

6. Retrograde Ejaculation

Male infertility can be caused by retrograde ejaculation, which is when semen that should come out of the penis during orgasm instead enters the bladder. This condition, if left untreated, can make it difficult for couples to get pregnant.

7. Sexual Problems

Various sexual problems, such as impotence, premature ejaculation, and ejaculatory incompetence, can also contribute to infertility. Erectile dysfunction, for example, occurs when a man has difficulty maintaining an erection, which can reduce sexual desire.

8. Cancer

Some types of cancer can affect the male reproductive organs and cause infertility. Cancer treatments, such as radiation and chemotherapy, can also trigger infertility.

Characteristics of Infertility in Men that are Easy to Understand

Infertility in men can be recognized through several signs that indicate the difficulty of sperm cells fertilizing an egg in the partner's uterus. This problem can hinder a woman's ability to get pregnant. Some other indicators include:

1. Swelling in the Testicular Area

Swelling in the testicular area can be another indicator of infertility in men. While there are a variety of health reasons that can cause testicular swelling, many of these conditions can be related to fertility problems.

2. Difficulty Maintaining an Erection

Difficulty in maintaining an erection can be a sign that needs to be suspected of being related to infertility in men. This condition is often related to a decrease in reproductive hormone levels in a man's body.

3. Small Testicles

Testicular size can be a potential sign of fertility problems in men. The testicles function as a storage place for sperm, and small size may indicate impaired fertility, especially if the testicles feel hard.

4. Changes in Sex Drive

Men with healthy reproductive hormones generally tend to be fertile, while a decrease in hormones can cause loss of sex drive. These changes can also be a sign of infertility in men.

Fertility Treatment

Treatment for infertility in men varies according to the cause. Some treatment options to consider involve:

  • Operation. Your doctor may recommend surgery to correct problems with sperm production, maturation, or ejaculation. Surgery to treat varicose veins in the blood vessels in the scrotum (varicocele) can also improve sperm quality.
  • Infection Treatment. Antibiotics can be used to treat infections of the reproductive tract, although they do not always restore fertility.
  • Handling Sexual Relationship Problems. Medication or counseling can help improve fertility in cases such as erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation.
  • Use of Hormones and Medications. Your doctor may recommend hormone therapy or medications if infertility is caused by a hormonal imbalance or a problem in the body's hormone regulation.
  • Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). ART treatment involves sperm retrieval via regular ejaculation, surgical extraction, or from a donor, depending on specific needs. The sperm can then be inserted into the female reproductive tract or used in the process of in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

Many productive couples face the challenge of infertility. Therefore, preventive efforts such as living a healthy lifestyle and avoiding risk factors that can affect the health of reproductive organs are highly recommended. If you are worried about infertility, immediately consult a doctor to get information about appropriate preventive measures and necessary treatment.


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