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Hiperurisemia - Gejala, Penyebab, dan Cara Mengatasinya

Hyperuricemia - Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments

Have you ever heard the terms high uric acid or hyperuricemia? This condition may sound strange, but actually quite a lot of people experience it. Hyperuricemia is a condition where the uric acid level in the blood exceeds normal limits.

Although it doesn't always show symptoms, uncontrolled high uric acid can have serious consequences. One of the most common complications is gout, which is a very painful inflammation of the joints. In addition, hyperuricemia can also increase the risk of kidney stones and chronic kidney disease.

In this article, we will discuss hyperuricemia in more depth, starting from the causes, symptoms, and how to treat it.

Symptoms Hyperuricemia

Hyperuricemia, high uric acid levels in the blood, often has no symptoms. However, be careful if joint pain appears suddenly, especially at night and in the morning. A sensation of heat, swelling and redness in the joints can be a sign of gout, a complication of hyperuricemia.

Kidney stones, another complication of hyperuricemia, present pain in the upper back that radiates to the lower abdomen and groin. Other symptoms that accompany kidney stones include:

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Fever or chills
  • Frequent urination with small amounts of urine
  • Urine is pink, red, or brown
  • Urine smells bad

Causes of Hyperuricemia

Uric acid is a natural substance in the body that is produced from the breakdown of purines, substances contained in food. A healthy body is able to excrete uric acid through urine. However, in some people, uric acid levels can increase due to various factors.

Here are some of the main causes of high uric acid:

1. Kidney Function Disorders

Healthy kidneys are able to dispose of uric acid properly. If the kidneys have problems, their ability to remove uric acid decreases, so that levels in the body increase.

2. Genetic Factors

Certain genetic conditions, such as Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, cause the body to lack enzymes that break down uric acid. This results in a buildup of uric acid in the body.

3. Consume foods high in purine

Some foods, such as organ meats, shellfish, crab, shrimp, red meat, and nuts, contain high levels of purine. Consuming excessive amounts of these foods can increase uric acid levels.

4. Excessively Sweet and Alcoholic Drinks

Excessive consumption of alcohol and sweet packaged drinks can increase uric acid production in the body. Sweeteners in packaged drinks, such as high fructose corn syrup, can be converted into uric acid by the body.

How to Overcome

Treatment for hyperuricemia will be adjusted based on the complications that arise. To treat gout, doctors can prescribe various medications, such as:

  • Anti-Inflammatory non-steroidal (NSAIDs), such as naproxen or celecoxib, to relieve pain.
  • Colchicine is useful in relieving pain due to gout attacks, especially for patients who cannot take NSAIDs.
  • Probenecid or febuxostat (Feburic), is used to lower uric acid levels in the body.
  • Allopurinol plays a role in reducing the amount of uric acid in the blood by inhibiting the enzyme that forms uric acid.

Meanwhile, treatment of kidney stones will be adjusted to the size of the stone formed. If the kidney stones are small, the doctor can advise the patient to drink water regularly, at least 8 glasses per day. In addition, for large kidney stones, a surgical procedure to remove the kidney stone may be necessary.

In addition to the treatment options above, it is recommended for patients to adopt a healthy lifestyle, such as:

  • Avoid consuming foods high in purine.
  • Reduce your intake of high-sugar drinks and alcoholic drinks.
  • Lose weight if you are obese.

Consult a doctor before taking drugs or supplements that have the potential to increase uric acid levels. If you have hypertension or diabetes, it is important to consult a doctor regularly for proper monitoring.


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