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Fungsi Hormon Estrogen dan Progesteron Pada Wanita

Functions of Estrogen and Progesterone in Women

To ensure that the body functions optimally, it is necessary to maintain a balance of the hormones estrogen and progesterone. If these two hormones are not balanced, various health problems can attack you, including decreased sexual desire in women. Therefore, maintaining hormonal balance is an important thing to prioritize.

Functions of Estrogen in Women

Estrogen has an important role for women, especially in regulating the reproductive system. However, the benefits don't just end there. This hormone also plays a role in maintaining the health of other organs, including the heart. Some of the main functions of estrogen are:

1. Regulates the Menstrual Cycle

The very important role of estrogen is to regulate the menstrual cycle since puberty, when the first menstruation marks the start of puberty. During puberty (9–14 years of age), estrogen works together with progesterone and androgen to form breasts and pubic hair.

When entering productive age (age 15-49 years), the production of estrogen will increase during ovulation, which is the middle of the menstrual cycle. This hormone plays an important role in thickening the uterine lining and maturing the egg so it is ready to be fertilized.

However, if fertilization does not occur, the egg will be shed along with the uterine lining that has been thickened through menstruation. After menstruation is over, levels of estrogen will return to normal. This process will continue to repeat until women reach menopause.

2. Supporting Pregnancy

During pregnancy, a woman's body will produce a higher amount of estrogen. This hormone plays a role in maintaining the strength of the uterus, carrying nutrients to the fetus, and supporting the breastfeeding process.

An increase in estrogen during pregnancy can also cause typical pregnancy symptoms, such as breast growth and morning sickness.

3. Triggers the Appearance of Menopause Symptoms

As we get older, the production of estrogen in women will naturally decrease. When entering menopause, estrogen levels will drop dramatically. This decrease triggers the appearance of menopausal symptoms, such as changes in the menstrual cycle, decreased sexual desire, and changes in body shape.

Functions of Progesterone in Women

Progesterone has an important role in the female body with several different functions. From stimulating breast development at puberty, to preparing the body for pregnancy and supporting it when it occurs. Here are some of the functions of progesterone in the female body:

1. Encourages Breast Development in Puberty

When entering puberty, progesterone plays a role in stimulating the growth of breast tissue. During each luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, breast tissue is also stimulated. The increase in progesterone levels during the luteal phase is thought to be the cause of the swelling, pain, and tension in the breasts that are often experienced during this phase.

Pain in the breast due to swelling is one of the common symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). During pregnancy, progesterone also prepares the breasts for milk production and lactation.

2. Helps in the Menstrual Cycle

After ovulation, the corpus luteum increases its production of progesterone. This continues the work of estrogen in preparing the lining of the uterus to receive a fertilized egg and facilitating the implantation of that egg for pregnancy.

If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum liquefies and progesterone levels decrease, causing the uterine lining to shed. This causes menstruation and starts the next menstrual cycle.

3. Assists in Pregnancy

If pregnancy occurs, the corpus luteum will continue to produce progesterone until about 10 weeks of gestation. After that, the placenta takes over production of progesterone for the remainder of the pregnancy.

Research shows that this hormone also has anti-inflammatory activity and affects the immune system. This function of progesterone helps protect early pregnancies from the risk of miscarriage and prevents future miscarriages and preterm labor.

4. Protects the Cervix from Infection

Not only that, progesterone also plays a role in reproduction in other ways. This hormone causes an increase in the mucus layer on the cervix and makes it thicker. This provides a barrier for sperm to penetrate, preventing unwanted fertilization. In addition, progesterone also has a role in boosting the immune system, thus protecting the cervix from the risk of infection.

5. Treats Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a condition in which endometrial tissue that normally lines the uterus grows in other female organs. Progesterone can help prevent endometrial hyperplasia, or it can be used to treat unusual and heavy uterine bleeding by regulating the menstrual cycle.

Maintaining a balance in the levels of estrogen and progesterone is very important to maximize the performance of the body's organs, especially the organs in the reproductive system which play a very important role. To achieve this goal, let's follow a healthy lifestyle by diligently consuming nutritious food and exercising regularly.



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