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Alergi Makanan vs. Intoleransi Makanan: Memahami Perbedaannya

Food Allergies vs. Food Sensitivities: Understanding the Differences

Food allergies and food sensitivities are two distinct conditions that can affect individuals' reactions to certain foods. While they may share similar symptoms, understanding the differences between these two conditions is crucial for proper diagnosis, management, and dietary adjustments. In this article, we will explore the disparities between food allergies and food sensitivities to enhance awareness and promote better understanding.

Food Allergies

Food allergies occur when the immune system reacts abnormally to specific proteins found in certain foods. The immune system identifies these proteins as harmful substances, triggering an immune response. The most common food allergens include peanuts, tree nuts, shellfish, fish, eggs, milk, wheat, and soy. When an allergic individual consumes or comes into contact with the allergen, the immune system releases histamine and other chemicals, leading to allergic reactions.

Symptoms of food allergies can range from mild to severe and may include:

1. Skin reactions: Itching, hives, eczema, or swelling of the lips, face, tongue, or throat.

2. Respiratory symptoms: Sneezing, runny nose, congestion, wheezing, or difficulty breathing.

3. Gastrointestinal issues: Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, or diarrhea.

4. Cardiovascular effects: Rapid heartbeat, low blood pressure, or fainting. In severe cases, a food allergy can trigger a life-threatening allergic reaction called anaphylaxis, which requires immediate medical attention.

Food Sensitivities

Food sensitivities, also known as food intolerances, do not involve the immune system response seen in food allergies. Instead, they result from difficulties in digesting or metabolizing certain components of food, such as lactose or gluten. The most common food sensitivities include lactose intolerance, gluten intolerance (celiac disease), and sensitivity to food additives like sulfites or monosodium glutamate (MSG).

Symptoms of food sensitivities can vary and may include:

1. Digestive issues: Abdominal pain, bloating, gas, diarrhea, or constipation.

2. Headaches: Migraines or tension headaches.

3. Skin problems: Rashes, eczema, or acne.

4. Fatigue: Generalized tiredness or lack of energy.

It is important to note that food sensitivities generally do not cause severe or life threatening reactions like food allergies.

Differences Between Food Allergies and Food Sensitivities

1. Immune System Response: Food allergies involve an immune system response, whereas food sensitivities do not trigger an immune reaction.

2. Severity of Reactions: Food allergies can cause severe, life-threatening reactions, while food sensitivities typically result in milder symptoms.

3. Timing of Symptoms: Food allergies often produce immediate symptoms, while food sensitivities may have a delayed onset, making it challenging to pinpoint the exact trigger.

4. Diagnostic Methods: Food allergies can be diagnosed through skin prick tests, blood tests measuring specific IgE antibodies, or oral food challenges. Food sensitivities are usually diagnosed through elimination diets or specific diagnostic tests, such as lactose intolerance breath tests or celiac disease antibody tests.

5. Treatment and Management: Food allergies require strict avoidance of the allergen, and individuals may need to carry epinephrine auto-injectors in case of severe reactions. Food sensitivities often involve dietary modifications, such as avoiding or reducing the consumption of the triggering food or component.

Differentiating between food allergies and food sensitivities is crucial for individuals to understand their specific dietary needs and manage their reactions effectively. While food allergies involve an immune system response and can be life-threatening, food sensitivities are typically non-immune reactions related to difficulties in digesting certain components of food. Seeking medical advice, undergoing proper diagnostic tests, and working with healthcare professionals can help individuals navigate their specific food-related conditions and make informed decisions regarding their diet and overall well-being.


  • Boyce, J. A., Assa'ad, A., Burks, A. W., Jones, S. M., Sampson, H. A., Wood, R. A., & Schneider, L. C. (2010). Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food allergy in the United States: report of the NIAID-sponsored expert panel. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 126(6 Suppl), S1-S58.
  • Vighi, G., Marcucci, F., Sensi, L., Di Cara, G., & Frati, F. (2008). Allergy and the gastrointestinal system. Clinical & Experimental Immunology, 153(Suppl 1), 3-6.
  • Skypala, I. J., & Venter, C. (2009). Non-IgE-mediated food allergy. Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 9(3), 214-219.


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