Every woman must experience menstruation. Although every woman has a different cycle, there are those who regularly menstruate every 21 to 35 days, and some women’s cycles are shorter or longer than that.
Each month, a woman's uterine lining prepares for pregnancy. This preparation for pregnancy is characterized by the thickening of the endometrium (wall of the uterus) which contains blood vessels. If fertilization does not occur, the endometrium will shed and come out of the vagina with blood.
Previously, we discussed the 3 phases of menstruation which are the follicular, ovulation, and luteal phases, so this time we will discuss more deeply about the menstrual phase.
What is the Menstrual Phase?
Menstruation is one part of the female reproductive cycle. In this condition, women will experience bleeding for 3 to 8 days. Generally, the length of the menstrual cycle is 28 days. However, women's body conditions and hormones are different, so each woman's menstrual cycle is different.
Menstruation is a sign that women have experienced puberty, and the female reproductive system is functioning optimally. Every month, a woman's uterine lining thickens to prepare for pregnancy and if fertilization does not occur, the uterine wall will shed and come out through the vagina in the form of blood (menstruation).
On the first day of menstruation, the bleeding is lighter. On that day the blood is brown, black, or pink. However, there are also women who will experience heavier bleeding. Generally, women will expel 30 to 70 milliliters of blood during menstruation.
Also, women will generally experience menstruation between the ages of 12 to 14 years and women will also stop menstruating between the ages of 45 to 55 years. This condition is known as menopause.
Cause of Menstruation
After we briefly discuss the meaning of menstruation, we will discuss the cause of menstruation itself. As previously explained, menstruation occurs when there is no fertilization of the egg, causing the lining of the uterus or endometrium to shed and come out through the vagina in the form of blood (menstruation).
In calculating the menstrual cycle, the first day is calculated from the first day the blood comes out through the vagina. The menstrual cycle is controlled by several hormones in the body, such as the hormones estrogen, progesterone, FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) and LH (Luteinizing Hormone).
In the middle of the cycle, the hormones estrogen and LH will trigger the release of eggs in mature ovaries. In addition to triggering the release, these two hormones are responsible for triggering the thickening of the uterine wall.
When it comes to menstruation, unconsciously, our bodies will experience several changes. These changes can be caused by the imminent menstrual period. Of course the main symptom of menstruation is bleeding from the vagina (menstruation). In addition there are several other symptoms that occur when we menstruate, commonly called premenstrual syndrome (PMS). The term PMS is often used by some people to indicate changes that occur in their bodies or hormones during menstruation.
The following are some of the symptoms that occur before menstruation takes place.
- Increased mood swings
- Weight gain
- Body feels tired easily
- Increased desire to eat
- Pimples that suddenly appear
- Headaches or migraines
- Insomnia (sleep disorder)
- Pain in the back and pelvis
- Pain in the breast
- Stomach feels bloated, etc.
These symptoms can occur before or after menstruation. Generally, these symptoms last for 6 to 7 days (4 days before menstruation and 2 days after menstruation).
If you experience some of the symptoms above, you do not need to worry, because these symptoms are common symptoms and can decrease with age.